Sausage Making Class

A plate of sausage, toast, apple sauce, and braised red cabbage.On Wednesday, November 4, 2015 I’ll be leading a sausage making class for Metro Continuing Education.  I’ve run this class dozens of times over the last few years, and it is time and time again my favourite.  Grinding meat and making sausage is usually considered a specialty trade; I think it’s an essential, fundamental kitchen technique.

Deets from the Fall 2015 Metro Class Calendar:

This class will teach you everything you need to know about making sausage at home from scratch.  Discuss how to source great local meat and then learn how to grind, mix, and stuff the meat into natural casings.  You will make two recipes: classic garlic and spicy Calabrese.

A Survey of Commercial Sausage Additives

A pack of bologna, with ingredients listReading the ingredients list of an industrially-produced sausage can be daunting.  We’ve been trained to mistrust “scientific sounding” ingredients, and there are ongoing discussions about the health risks associated with many common additives.  I don’t wade into that debate too much in this post, partly because I know so little about it, but also because there are few reliable studies on the subject.  The fields of nutrition and health are so tied up with industry that it’s hard to know what to believe.  I’ll leave it for you to decide what ingredients are okay and which are not.  In this post I simply describe the role the additive plays in the sausage-making process.  Interestingly, most them are used to accelerate the mixing and curing phases and increase production.  They are therefore useless in a leisurely home setting.  That’s the best part about making sausages at home: you decide what goes in them.

I define “additive” as any ingredient added to the sausage besides meat and fat.  Most of the following info, and all the bits in quotation marks, are from Processed Meats.[1]

Water and Ice.  Unlike with commercial bacon and hams, which are injected with water to increase yields, water is an integral part of sausage-making and is usually the first ingredient listed after the meat.  Water and ice cool the meat, counteracting any frictional heat that develops during mixing and allowing the meat to be mixed longer and develop more texture.  Water also helps dissolve salt, “imparts fluidity to the emulsion”, and improves the mouthfeel of the final sausage by adding moisture.

Salt (ie. table salt, sodium chloride) is the most important additive.  Actually it is indispensable.  It prevents microbial growth, “aids in solubilizing myosin-type proteins”, “increases water-holding capacity”, and of course makes for better flavour.

Curing Salts (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and others) perform several functions in sausage-making.  For instance:

  • They form nitric oxide, which interacts with myoglobin to develop the rosy pink colour we expect in cured meats.
  • The nitric oxide also prevents fat rancidity by binding to iron atoms, which otherwise would oxidize the fat.
  • Curings salts give the meat a distinct, piquant flavour.
  • They also prevent the growth of pathogenic microbes.

Curings salts are much maligned in the media.  When nitrite interacts with amino acids in the meat, nitrosamines form.  These are known carcinogens.  However, curing salts are absolutely essential for traditional air-dried sausage like salami, preventing the growth of deadly botulism bacteria.  I use sodium nitrite in many of the sausages I make at home, and all of the sausages I make at work.  For more on curing salts and their role in charcuterie, see this post.

Ascorbates and Erythorbates.  Ascorbates and isoascorbates (also known as erythorbates) are “closely related” and used interchangeably.  They are “active reducing agents [that] react with nitrite increasing the yield of nitric oxide”.  They “ensure development of desired color in cured meats” and “speed up the curing reaction and prevent formation of secondary N-nitrosamines”.

Sugar (common forms including sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup) is added chiefly for flavour.  In the case of fermented sausages like salami, it is added to feed lactobacteria, which convert the sugar to lactic acid and give the final sausage its characteristic tanginess.

Phosphates.  There are two types of phosphates used in processed meats: acid and alkaline. Sodium acid pyrophosphate is a cure accelerator.  It “accelerates [the] development of cured color in rapid processing of bacon, frankfurters, or bologna by lowering the pH rapidly by about 0.2-0.3 units during initial stages of the operation”.  Alkaline phosphates (the most common examples being sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) “increase water-binding capacity [by] acting as polyelectrolytes to increase ionic strength”.  “This frees some of the negatively charged sites on the proteins so they can bind more water”.  Alkaline phosphates also “increase fat emulsifying capacity of the myofibrillar proteins” by “solubilizing and dissociating actomyosin into actin and myosin, which in their dissociated forms can emulsify more fat”.

Glucono-δ-Lactone (that middle character is a lower-case Greek delta, so this additive is often called GDL) is also a “cure accelerator [that] speeds up development of cured meat color”.  It “will reduce the pH of the batter by about 0.2-0.3 units, which accelerates the conversion of the meat pigments to their desirable forms.  It is valuable during rapid processing.”

Acid Sprays are used prior to smoking meat, which makes me think that it improves smoke adherence, though I’ve never come across this explanation in the literature.  An acid spray reduces the surface pH and “either coagulates proteins at the surface or permits coagulation at a lower temperature”, which “helps development of surface color”.

Binders and Extenders perform one or several of the following functions:

  • reduce formulation costs (ie. by bulking up the sausage with a product that is cheaper than meat)
  • improve cooking yield
  • improve slicing characteristics
  • improve flavour
  • increase protein content
  • improve emulsion stability
  • improve fat binding
  • increase water binding

Some examples of binders and extenders:

Soy Protein Extenders are combined with flavouring agents, binders (like egg albumen) and fat to make “meat analogs”, which is a disgusting phrase.  They also increase the water and fat binding characteristics of the batter.

Milk Protein Extenders are used because “milk proteins are more heat stable than meat proteins.  Thus, they help to stabilize meat emulsions that are chopped at high temperatures”.  They are more common in fine-textured sausages like bologna or weisswurst.

Flours and Starch are both binders and extenders.  They “absorb large amounts of water and … become sticky, causing the ground up meat particles to adhere to each other”.  While extenders are generally maligned by foodies, flavourful starches like toasted bread crumbs can be a fantastic source of flavour in sausages.  Heston Blumenthal considers toasted wheat rusk an indispensable component of classic English bangers.  I consider toasted bread crumbs an indispensable component of meatballs.

Colloids and Gums such as carageenans and alginates are sometimes used to bind low fat products.  But why would you buy a low fat sausage in the first place?

Flavour Enhancders including MSG, IMP, and GMP are sometimes used to bolster the flavour of the meat.  MSG was demonized in the early ’90s as the cause of mysterious symptoms that manifested themselves after the consumption of Chinese food.  For an eye-opening discussion of the MSG scare, see Jeffrey Steingarten’s essay “Why Doesn’t Everyone in China Have a Headache?”, part of a collection entitled It Must’ve Been Something I Ate.


Two Case Studies

To give you some real-life examples, I walked through the deli section of a Superstore and wrote down the ingredients list of a couple items.

Johnsonville Original Breakfast Sausages.  The ingredients list: pork, water, corn syrup, dextrose, lemon juice powder (maltodextrin, lemon juice solids), monosodium glutamate, flavours, calcium stearate, silicon dioxide.

So.  Here we have a fresh sausage, ie. raw meat stuffed into casings.  The use of curing salt is optional in this case, and we can see that there is no sodium nitrite.  Usually acids are used as cure accelerators, but since there’s no curing salt in these sausages, the lemon juice powder must be for flavour.  There are several sweeteners: corn syrup, dextrose, and potentially maltodextrin.  This sausage contains MSG to boost the meaty flavour.

Calcium stearate is often used as a lubricant. I’ve found some admittedly sketchy sources online that suggest sausage casings can be coated with calcium stearate to let the sausages slide over each other without sticking and tearing.

I’m only familiar with silicon dioxide as an anti-caking agent, and with a number of powdered ingredients (dextrose, lemon juice powder, MSG) I assume that’s what it’s being used for here.  Just speculation, though.

No Name Sliced Bologna.  The ingredients are as follows: pork, mechanically separated chicken, water, modified milk ingredients, salt, wheat flour, sugar, corn syrup solids, sodium phosphate, sodium erythorbate, onion powder, garlic powder, sodium nitrite, spices, smoke.

Bologna is a North American bastardization of mortadella.  It is a very fine-textured sausage, meaning that the meat and fat have been ground and processed, emulsified into a uniform paste.  Since the meat and fat are being chopped, ground, processed, and mixed, there is a lot of potential for friction that will heat the batter and break the emulsion.  After pork and chicken, the main ingredient here is water, which would be added to the meat extremely cold, possibly even frozen, to keep the temperature of the batter down.  Milk proteins in the form of “modified milk ingredients” are used because they are more heat-stable than meat proteins.  The wheat flour also acts as an emulsion stabilizer.

Bologna always contains curing salt (sodium nitrite in this case) to develop the characteristic pink colour.  As this is a mass-produced product, we therefore have a couple curing accelerators: sodium phosphate and sodium erythorbate.  All other ingredients are for flavour, though I have to say that “mechanically separated chicken” has always sounded gross to me.  It should be noted that most of the flavour enhancers are heavily processed: corn syrup solids, onion powder, garlic powder.



Pearson, A.M., and Gillett, Tedford A.  Processed Meats.  © 1999 Aspen Publishers Inc., New York.  This was a very interesting read.  In fact, I hope to have similar posts on commercial bacon and ham, which will elucidate why they are so, so much worse than their homemade counterparts.

Käsekrainer, and other Austrian Sausages

Würstlstände are sausage stands.  They punctuate the sidewalks of every city in Austria.  People from all walks of life crowd around these kiosks for, say, a quick lunch, or a post-bar snack: a sausage, fried or steamed, served with some manner of bread, mustard, and beer or pop.

While certain types of sausage appear on almost every würstlstand menu, it can be frustrating trying to pin down their characteristics, as a huge variety of sausages can go by the same name.  Bratwurst, for instance, is sometimes based on pork, sometimes on veal, sometimes stuffed into slender lamb casings, sometimes into wider hogs…

Here are some very general descriptions of the most common würste:

  • Burenwurst – Apparently a corruption of “boerwurst,” a hearty South African sausage distinguished by its coarse texture.
  • Debreziner – Debrec is a city in Hungary.  The only characteristic that seems to unite all debreziners is the liberal use of paprika.
  • Waldviertler – The Waldviertel (literally “forest quarter,”) is a region in Lower Austria, famous for rustic cuisine.  This sausage is lightly smoked and made of pork.
  • Frankfurter – A very long, slender, boiled sausage, with an extremely fine interior similar to most North American hot dogs.  In Frankfurt these sausages are called Wieners.  Go figure.
  • Sacherwurst – In my experience, these are indistinguishable from frankfurters.
  • Bratwurst – The familiar “brat,” a frying sausage.
  • Bernerwurst – More common in cafeterias and restaurants than sausages stands, this is a sausage stuffed with cheese and wrapped with bacon.
  • Weisswurst – One of the few sausages that always takes a very specific form.  Literally “white sausage,” though it is usually more grey than white.  Made from veal and pork fat which are very finely ground and emulsified.  A delicate sausage, it is boiled and taken out of its skin before being served.  It is very much a Bavarian sausage.  Within Austria it is only commonly found in Salzburg, which is right by the Bavarian border. Traditionally eaten before noon, with a brezel (pretzel), sweet mustard, and white beer.

In North America the term “hot dog” refers to both the dish (ie. a wiener in a bun), and the style of wiener itself (ie. an emulsified link flavoured with garlic and smoke).  In Austria a “hot dog” is a sausage shoved into a long, crusty roll.  You can therefore have, for instance, a bratwurst hot dog, or a burenwurst hot dog.  If you don’t specify “hot dog,” your sausage will probably be served with a round crusty bun on the side, as below.  Note the ceramic plate.


While outsiders recognize wiener schnitzel as the national dish of Austria, I think most Austrians acknowledge a special sausage called käsekrainer (“KAY-zeh KREYE-ner”) as their greatest culinary achievement.

“Käse” means cheese.  I have no idea what “krainer” means, and neither do any Austrians.     (Editor’s Note: see comment section below for the origin of the word “krainer.”)  Käsekrainer is a sausage with a finely ground interior that is riddled with cubes of cheese that melt when the sausage is cooked.  It is the crown jewel of Austrian streetfood.

Within twenty four hours of returning to Canada I had procured the ingredients for a käsekrainer test batch.

Käsekrainer: A First Attempt


  • 1000 g pork shoulder
  • 200 g Sylvan Star Gruyère, rind removed, diced into 3/16″ cubes
  • 16 g kosher salt
  • 1/2 tbsp light corn syrup
  • 1 pinch sodium nitrite>
  • 2 cloves garlic (the Austrians call them “toes,” which I thought was cute…), minced
  • 1 bay leaf, ground
  • 1/4 tsp smoked paprika
  • 1/4 tsp mustard powder
  • 1/4 tsp freshly ground, toasted coriander
  • 1 pinch cayenne
  • fresh ground black pepper
  • 5′ hog casings, soaked and rinsed


I chose to experiment with Gruyère because of its famous melting properties (it is the go-to cheese for fondue and raclette).  To my surprise, Sylvan Star has their own version of the alpine cheese:

Cut the pork into 1″ cubes.  Spread on a tray lined with wax paper and keep in the freezer until “crunchy” but not frozen solid.  Grind the meat through a 1/4″ plate.  Add the salt and spices to the ground meat. Spread the ground meat onto a tray lined with wax paper and return to the freezer for about 15 minutes.  Regrind the mixture using a 3/16″ plate.

Using the paddle attachment of a stand mixer, slowly mix the forcemeat while adding the corn syrup.  When the force binds and becomes tacky, fold in the cubed cheese.

Fry a small piece of the mixture and taste.  Adjust the seasoning as necessary.

Stuff the mixture into the hog casings and twist into 6″ links.  Hang on a wooden dowel to dry for an hour.

On Cooking Käsekrainer

On the streets of Vienna there are actually two types of käsekrainer.  They result not from different methods of manufacture, but from different methods of cooking.

The first, when passed through the würstlstand window, looks like any other sausage; it is only upon biting into the link that you discover the cheese.  The second has a crunchy crust of cheese fried onto the exterior of the sausage.  I don’t think I need to spend much time explaining why the latter is superior (the nutty-tangy taste of browned cheese, the accentuation of the textural contrast between sausage skin and interior…)

Having only cooked a couple of käsekrainer links myself, I am still working on my crust development.

Inevitably (and especially in homemade links) some cheese will leak out the ends during cooking.  My working theory on crust development is that the sausage must be rolled through this cheese while it is still gooey, so that the cheese adheres to the skin.  Otherwise the cheese will brown and stick to the pan, instead of the sausage.  As a rule of thumb, move the käsekrainer frequently while cooking.

The sausage must be eaten very hot, or the cheese will re-congeal.

Fried Kaesekrainer

This recipe and cooking process result in an acceptable approximation of an Austrian käsekrainer.  I think that most of the versions I had there were lightly smoked.  While the smoked paprika in my recipe goes some distance to capturing that flavour, I think the next test batch will have to be cold-smoked before frying.